sleep apnea

  • 5 reasons to start practicing mindfulness and how it can help you

    Original Article CCN Health By Jen Rose Smith, CNN

    (CNN)Are you paying attention? Maybe not. We spend nearly half our waking lives with wandering minds, Harvard University scientists found over a decade ago. When you’re trying to get something done — such as reading an article about mindfulness, for example — that wandering mind can derail your goals. “If we’re not paying attention to the present moment when we’re trying to get something done, that’s a problem, whether the goal is to read a book or talk to a partner,” said Amishi Jha, professor of psychology at the University of Miami. “Whatever it is, it’s going to require you to actually be in the moment to do it. “That’s where mindfulness comes in.

    With roots in Eastern spiritual traditions, mindfulness has transformed into a secular practice in the West. The term encompasses a range of practices that include breathing exercises, guided meditations and more formal trainings. “It’s the antidote to mind wandering,” Jha said. “It’s paying attention to our present moment experience without editorializing or reacting to it. “Mindfulness is an effective way to quiet your mind. Benefits of mindfulness go beyond focus. Practicing mindfulness can be effective at improving focus, lessening pain, improving sleep, mitigating stress and easing feelings of anxiety and depression, studies have found in recent years. Those are five great reasons to try a mindfulness practice — and we’ve got five ways you can get started today. Enter your email to sign up for the Better Sleep newsletter. “close dialog”

    1. You want to fine-tune your focus

    Constantly getting distracted is annoying, but it can be more serious than that annoyance. “When you are not paying attention to what is in front of you, in the moment, you’re going to have errors, you’re going to make mistakes, you’re likely to have lapses in judgment,” said University of Miami psychologist Jha, author of the forthcoming book “Peak Mind: Find Your Focus, Own Your Attention, Invest 12 Minutes a Day,” which explores how mindfulness can improve focus and attention.

    This 5-minute meditation routine will calm you downShe works with military personnel and first responders, whose jobs require extreme focus in stressful situations. “If you have an attentional lapse, it could be the difference between life and death,” she said. Taking time for mindfulness is like strengthening a mental muscle, she said, and her lab has found positive results from just 12 minutes of daily practice.”It’s parallel to physical activity,” Jha said. “Engaging in a mindfulness practice is strengthening specific aspects of attention so that if we need them, we have access to that.”Try this: Join CNN’s Anderson Cooper for a guided meditation with mindfulness research pioneer Jon Kabat-Zinn

    2. You’re living with chronic pain

    More than a fifth of US adults have chronic pain, found the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2019, conditions that contribute to the country’s opioid epidemic.Mindfulness is a promising technique for managing symptoms while lessening prescription drug use, said Eric Garland, a distinguished endowed chair in research, professor and associate dean at The University of Utah College of Social Work.

    These people started using drugs as children but turned their lives around. Here’s how.“Practice of mindfulness seems to help people cope with chronic pain, and reduce their overreliance on opioids,” he said. “Mindfulness breathing can immediately reduce pain” by 23%, according to Garland’s research.It’s not a long-lasting effect, he added. But his research has found that 15 minutes of mindful breathing is enough for a temporary reduction in pain.”It’s meditation as medication. You’re hurting, and you take some ibuprofen, and it works to alleviate pain,” he said. “The effects wear off in a couple of hours and you need to take another medicine. Mindfulness is similar.”Try this: Follow step-by-step instructions for a short body scan to address pain

    3. You’d like a great night of sleep

    Missing out on sleep is linked to chronic diseases and poor health, but more than 35% of US adults get fewer than the recommended seven to nine hours, according to the CDC.

    Sleep hygiene: 8 ways to train your brain for better sleepIf you’re tossing and turning all night, a mindfulness practice may help, found a 2019 meta-analysis of 18 studies.A wide range of sleep-specific mindfulness meditations are available free online. A popular mindfulness-for-sleep technique is the “body scan,” an approach that outperformed cognitive behavioral therapy in a 2020 trial of adolescents with insomnia.Sign up for the Sleep, But Better newsletter series. Our seven-part guide has helpful hints to achieve better sleep.In a body scan sleep meditation created by UCLA’s Mindful Awareness Research Center, participants follow recorded instructions to notice sensations in each part of the body, starting at the top of the head and moving toward the feet and toes. The best part? It all happens in bed.Try this: Lie down and cue up UCLA’s 13-minute body scan for sleep

    4. You’re feeling the effects of too much stress

    “There’s definitely support for mindfulness reducing stress,” said Winston of UCLA’s Mindful Awareness Research Center. Years of research back the claim, though Winston noted that the studies’ definitions of stress can vary widely.

    5 natural ways to boost your mental health during stressful timesThe eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program designed by mindfulness expert Jon Kabat-Zinn is a deep dive into practices attuned to alleviate stress. But many shorter guided meditations are available online, including from the UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center.Such techniques may ease health problems that are commonly associated with stress. “It’s helpful with stress-related physical conditions,” Winston said. “It can impact blood pressure, it can boost the immune system, it can improve the healing response.”Try this: Stream Winston’s five-minute guided breathing mindfulness meditation

    5. You’re dealing with pandemic anxiety

    In mindfulness studies, “one of the easier effects to see is lowered anxiety,” said Susan Johnson, a professor of psychological science of The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, who noted the calming effect of sitting down and taking some deep, slow breaths.

    Americans are not getting the mental health treatment they need, report says“It’s kind of like a glass of muddy water. You let it sit, and the mud settles, and you see things a little more clearly,” she said.Mindfulness has been shown to relieve anxiety and boost mood, welcome news amid a pandemic that has triggered a global mental health crisis.Try this: Take five minutes for a guided breathing practice from Zindel Segal, distinguished professor of psychology in mood disorders at the University of Toronto — Scarborough

    The future — and limitations — of mindfulness science

    Mindfulness is not a cure-all, despite a growing number of studies and eager headlines. Some mindfulness research fails to meet the strictest norms of study design, Johnson said.

    The best yoga mats of 2021 (CNN Underscored)“Only about 10% of studies have active control groups,” she said. In a study with an active control group, some participants use mindfulness while others try a different activity entirely. It helps weed out the placebo effect.A 2021 meta-analysis in the British Medical Bulletin noted a need for more high-quality studies with larger sample sizes and more long-term follow-up. Evidence for some mindfulness benefits is robust, the study found, showing techniques can help with pain, insomnia, anxiety and stress. Evidence that mindfulness interventions help with post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders and eating disorders — some of which have made splashy news in recent years — remain preliminary.”I think (mindfulness) can be beneficial. I do meditate myself,” said Johnson, who calls herself “a skeptic of the exaggerated claims that are made.”Get CNN Health’s weekly newsletter

    Sign up here to get The Results Are In with Dr. Sanjay Gupta every Tuesday from the CNN Health team.And even when it comes to targeting conditions like anxiety and stress, where benefits of mindfulness are strongly supported by research, there are no guarantees. “Mindfulness is not for everybody,” noted UCLA’s Winston. “Some people really respond to it and love it, and others don’t find it helpful.” Winston, too, said enthusiasm about the possible benefits of mindfulness sometimes gets ahead of the research.”Just keep in mind that the research on mindfulness is very young, even though it’s very exciting,” she said. “There’s so much more to do.”

  • What Is Sleep Apnea?

    Sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts. If you snore loudly and feel tired, even after a full night’s sleep, you may have sleep apnea.

    Woman with Sleep Apnea Snoring

    There are two types of sleep apnea:

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    The more common form of sleep apnea is obstructive sleep apnea. This occurs when the throat muscles relax. It is an anatomical and neurological problem. During sleep, your airway collapses and blocks air from passing through. Some sleep apnea patients may gasp, snore or choke. Some are completely silent. Not all people who have sleep apnea snore. Not all people who snore have sleep apnea.

    Central Sleep Apnea

    The lesser common form of sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, occurs when the brain fails to send important signals to the breathing muscles during sleep. Your body essentially “forgets to breathe”.

    What are the effects?

    This roller coaster sleep pattern leads to a loss of energy, concentration, productivity and an inability to stay awake during less active tasks. This may include reading, watching television and driving. In severe cases, the continuous oxygen deprivation caused by sleep apnea can lead to high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes and even sudden death. There may be a genetic component to this disorder as it often occurs within families.

    Can Sleep Apnea Be Resolved?

    Generally, in cases of very mild sleep apnea, symptoms have been resolved with weight loss, a reduction of alcohol intake, or a change in sleep position. Sleep experts suggest that most people with sleep apnea should not sleep on their backs, but instead on their left side.

    In more serious cases, oral appliance therapy which repositions the lower jaw and the tongue are very helpful to many patients and also those whose only problem is disruptive snoring. These devices gently keep your jaw forward during sleep to open your airway. For the vast majority of patients, the oral appliances are far more comfortable than CPAP therapy. In fact, experience shows that 83% of patients who try oral appliance therapy sleep comfortably for an average of almost 7 hours per night.

    CPAP machines offer continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) through a mask. Although this treatment helps many people, some cannot tolerate this method and may benefit from oral devices.

    Many people benefit from combination therapy; the use of an oral appliance and the CPAP machine.

    Seeking Treatment

    We recommend you seek treatment from an American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine Diplomate. Diagnosing sleep apnea currently involves a physician prescribed sleep test. These tests can be performed at home or at a sleep lab.  For more information on sleep apnea and resources, you can visit American Alliance for Healthy Sleep, 2510 North Frontage Road
    Darien, IL 60561 or National Sleep Foundation, 1367 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036

  • Frightening Things Sleep Loss Can Do to Your Body

    Original Post by: Sara Middleton, staff writer | December 18, 2019

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    The sleep loss some people willingly subject themselves to is doing the exact opposite of helping them gain an academic “edge,” and is in no way beneficial for stress management (NaturalHealth365) Calling all students, board executives, parents with busy families, or any other hard-working individuals: pulling all-nighters is officially no longer something to brag about!

    Case in point? Research from institutions like Texas A&M College of Medicine and St. Lawrence University finds that consistently pulling all-nighters is associated with a lower grade point average – in addition to increased anxiety, impaired performance, and a myriad of other problems.

    Pulling all-nighters will lower your grade point average and increase the risk of weight gain

    Poor grades and a low-grade point average (GPA) can be big issues, but they’re certainly not the only ones caused by staying up all night. According to research, pulling all-nighters or consistently getting less than 6 hours of sleep per night increases the risk of other serious and undesirable health consequences, including:

    • Weight gain
    • Cancer
    • Heart disease
    • Accidents
    • Depression and anxiety (even just one sleepless night can raise anxiety levels by as much as 30%, according to a recent study from the University of California Berkeley published in Nature Human Behavior)

    Of course, we’d be remiss to just harp on the negatives. For example, the same UC Berkeley study we just mentioned also determined that deep non-rapid eye movement sleep (the non-dreaming stage) can literally rewire brain circuitry in such a way as to decrease anxiety, as well as lower blood pressure and heart rate.

    We also know that consistently getting a sufficient amount of sleep (that’s 7 to 9 hours per night for adults) increases our mood and productivity, reduce our risk for diabetes, helps us manage stress, and strengthens our immune system to help us avoid getting sick.

    Psst: teens need about 8 to 10 hours of sleep, and kids between the ages of 6 and 12 need about 9 to 12!

    Do NOT ignore the health dangers linked to toxic indoor air.  These chemicals – the ‘off-gassing’ of paints, mattresses, carpets and other home/office building materials – increase your risk of headaches, dementia, heart disease and cancer.

    Get the BEST indoor air purification system – at the LOWEST price, exclusively for NaturalHealth365 readers.  I, personally use this system in my home AND office.  Click HERE to order now – before the sale ends.

    Struggling with sleep apnea or insomnia? Here are three natural tips for combating sleep deprivation

    If you have a hard time falling and/or staying asleep, you’re in good (albeit tired) company. According to the Sleep Health Foundation, 1 out of 3 people have at least mild insomnia.

    But popping a sleeping pill – whether over-the-counter or prescription – doesn’t work long-term…and, of course, poses the risk of dependency and adverse side effects.

    So, how can you ease your mind and get to sleep better without becoming reliant on drugs? Previously, we’ve shared some helpful tips for improving your sleep naturally in our NaturalHealth365 podcast.  But, for a brief refresher, here are three simple strategies you can start implementing tonight:

    1. Turn down the temp. Sleep research indicates that an ideal bedroom temperature is between 60 and 68 degrees Fahrenheit (ca. 20 °C). Surprisingly cool, but it seems to be ideal for helping your body create melatonin, a major sleep-wake cycle hormone. Plus, we all know how hard it is to fall asleep on a hot summer’s night when the A/C breaks!
    2. Power down your devices. Dim your lights and avoid using televisions, cell phones, tablets, and laptops about an hour before bed. Hard to do? Sure. But if the trade-off is better sleep and better health, it definitely seems like a challenge worth taking on.
    3. Implement a relaxing bedtime routine. Instead of scrolling on social media, try kicking back with a book or journal, deep breathing in a hot shower, or testing out that new DIY facial mask you’ve been wanting to try. Practice regular self-soothing acts that help your body wind down.

    Sources for this article include:

  • Better Nights for Better Days

    Better Nights for Better Days

    What is Better Nights for Better Days?

    Here at Sleep Apnea Dentists of New England, our goal for 2020 is to help sleep apnea sufferers experience better nights of sleep. When our bodies are able to experience good sleep, our days become better. Everybody understands the correlation between a good night’s sleep and our ability to function throughout the day.

    Just like Nancy, a good night’s sleep is a must – in order to survive the daily grind of work and life. If the body does not get enough quality sleep, that is problematic. What many people do not realize is that a lack of sleep, on a consistent basis, comes with long-term health consequences that include:

    • Irritability
    • Memory Loss
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Heart Disease
    • Alzheimer’s
    • Shortened Life Expectancy
    • Weakened Immunity
    • Anxiety
    • Depression

    How to Get A Better Night’s Sleep

    Here at Sleep Apnea Dentists of New England, we treat people who have a diagnosis of Sleep Apnea and have or have not tried using the CPAP machine.

    While we can’t give you back the sleep you have lost, we can work with you and your physician to help you finally get the rest you (and perhaps your bed partner) so richly deserve. Our promise is to work hard to help alleviate the symptoms and limitations caused by this serious medical condition. We want to improve your quality of life by increasing every hour of restful sleep you get.

    Follow #BetterNightsForBetterDays

    Use the hashtag #betternightsforbetterdays when you wish to learn more about sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP, oral sleep appliances, and quality sleep.

    Sleep loss and sleep disorders are among the most common yet frequently overlooked and treatable health problems. Follow our hashtag and discover the correlation between sleep and your health. With improved sleep comes improved health. When your health improves, so does your quality of life.

    Make a New Year’s resolution to your own well-being. Connect with us today and start your New Year with a new YOU!

    What have you got to lose? GETTING quality sleep and life is definitely worth the gain!

  • Does Sleep Apnea Worsen In the Winter?

    Will my sleep apnea worsen in the winter?

    Sleep apnea is a health issue that often goes undiagnosed. Symptoms include snoring loudly and gasping for air often throughout the night. This is especially true during winter months when sleep apnea can worsen.

    This article will explain more about sleep apnea, effective treatments, and why cold weather may make your symptoms worse.

    What is sleep apnea?

    Sleep apnea is a common yet serious sleep disorder that’s characterized by pauses in breathing while you sleep. This can happen repeatedly, and you may not even be aware of it since you probably don’t fully awaken when this occurs.

    During sleep, your airway collapses and blocks air from passing through. Some sleep apnea patients may gasp, snore or choke. Some are completely silent. Not all people who have sleep apnea snore. Not all people who snore have sleep apnea.

    Anyone can have sleep apnea – even children. If you are male, overweight and/or over the age of 40, you’re at a higher risk. You can also have an increased risk if you have nasal congestion or obstruction caused by issues such as a deviated septum or allergies.

    What are the symptoms of sleep apnea?

    The most obvious symptoms of sleep apnea are loud snoring, gasping, or choking sounds during sleep and feelings of extreme sleepiness during the day. However, symptoms can may also include the following:

    • A sore or dry throat when you wake up
    • Morning headaches
    • Trouble falling asleep
    • Awakening frequently at night
    • Restless sleep
    • Problems with concentration
    • Learning and memory problems
    • Moodiness and irritability
    • Depression
    • Irregular heartbeat

    Does sleep apnea get worse in the winter?

    An extensive, long-term study conducted in a sleep clinic in Brazil indicates that sleep apnea can get worse during winter months. Researchers looked at sleep study information for more than 7,500 patients over a 10-year period.

    Patients in winter months had more nighttime stoppages in breathing when compared to patients who sought treatment in warmer months. Patients stopped breathing 18 times an hour on average in colder months compared to 15 times an hour in warmer months. In addition, 34 percent of patients who sought treatment in cold weather had severe sleep apnea, while only 28 percent of patients in warmer weather did.

    The difference could be due to a variety of reasons;

    • Winter-related illnesses can affect the upper airway, making sleep apnea symptoms worse.
    • Breathing in smoke from burning wood in fireplaces can worsen symptoms.
    • During the winter months, the air is much drier which can irritate air passages, thus increasing the frequency of sleep apnea related episodes.

    Where can I find treatment for my sleep apnea?

    The doctors at Sleep Apnea Dentists of New England have extensive experience in helping patients with sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Dr Vicki Cohn, DDS, D.ABDSM, is a Diplomate of the American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine, the highest distinction in Dental Sleep Medicine. She is committed to assisting with the underlying causes of sleep apnea and providing effective sleep apnea treatments.

    If you have been diagnosed with sleep apnea, schedule an appointment with us today. We’ll work with you to find sleep apnea treatments that will help you sleep better, feel better, and improve your overall health.

  • 7 Athletes and The Common Misconception About Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Original Post in | APRIL 12, 2019 7 MINS READ

    At Sleep Apnea Dentists of New England, we see many athletes of all skills and ages who are dealing with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. We stumbled upon this very useful article that directly addresses the current misconception of athletes and sleep apnea and found it shareworthy.

    Athletes and Sleep Apnea

    According to the American Sleep Apnea Association, as many as 22 million individuals1 in the U.S. struggle with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) – men, women and children. And, 80 percent of moderate and severe OSA cases are undiagnosed. Researchers have also found you have a 46 percent higher risk of dying early when you have severe OSA, and this includes athletes with sleep apnea.

    Sleep Apnea Misconceptions

    Surrounding these statistics though are misconceptions about sleep apnea that keeps an individual from receiving a diagnosis ― and being treated.  A couple of common sleep apnea myths are:

    Sleep Apnea Only Affects People Who Are Overweight

    OSA is often viewed as being closely related to an above-average BMI. While many individuals with a diagnosis are overweight, there’s still many who are at an average weight. Anyone of any size or shape can get sleep apnea. Genetics can sometimes play a role.

    But, OSA does decrease how much restful sleep an individual gets each night and some studies do show a link between weight gain and insufficient sleep2.

    However, another study shows a link between CPAP therapy for sleep apnea and weight gain and that it can increase both weight and BMI (Body Mass Index). To experience CPAP and weight loss at the same time, you should combine your therapy with a healthy lifestyle that includes:

    • A healthy diet
    • Not smoking
    • Exercise
    • Quality sleep
    • Taking care of yourself

    Sleep Apnea Only Affects Men

    The common misconception is that sleep apnea only affects men. Sure, men do tend to receive more diagnoses of the condition than women, but women do get it too. Most women develop sleep apnea following menopause, with around six percent of them having it. And, female patients now make up 45 percent of sleep study referrals.

    Not only does sleep apnea affect both men and women, but celebrities with sleep apnea aren’t uncommon either. In fact, there are many famous athletes who have or had sleep apnea.

    7 Athletes With Sleep APnea

    1. Shaquille O’Neal, who goes by the nickname “Shaq” is a retired professional basketball player in the U.S. He raised sleep apnea awareness by featuring in the four-minute video, “Shaq attacks sleep apnea,” where it shows him interacting with sleep specialists from Harvard as they prep him for an overnight sleep study. He’s also the global ambassador of ZYPPAH — a solution to snoring3.

    Shaquille O’Neal tells Bill Littlefield about his academic struggles as a kid, his growth at LSU and his current work as a children’s book author. (Courtesy Turner Sports)

    2. Ryan Jensen, who is offensive lineman of the Baltimore Ravens told ABC news, “an obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis saved my career.” 4. He lost a lot of weight and strength and was cut from the team. After using a CPAP machine for several nights, it “changed everything.” His weight went up after one month of use, his strength returned, and he even returned to the team.

    3. Reggie White, a two-time NFL Defensive Player of the Year, died prematurely because of sleep apnea5. His widow, Sara, created the Reggie White Foundation, which helps to raise awareness of the condition.

    The new kid in town met some of the other kids in town for a Green Bay training camp tradition, July 1993. John Biever/Sports Illustrated

    4. Roy Green, a retired NFL wide receiver, has now started focusing on promoting awareness of sleep apnea6 all over the country to help improve both current and former professional athletes’ health. He’s teamed up with David Gergen, dental icon and the Pro Player Health Alliance to help hold free local community public awareness events all over the nation.

    5. Warren Sapp, Super Bowl champion, was prompted to seek treatment after the death of Reggie White, his friend and fellow football star. Through the Sleep Apnea Prevention Project7, he now helps raise sleep apnea awareness.

    Warren Sapp, a former defensive tackle for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Oakland Raiders. Robert B. Stanton/NFLPhotoLibrary

    6. Percy Harvin, former NFL wide receiver, received a sleep apnea diagnosis in 2010 after collapsing at practice. He talked to reporters during an interview about how CPAP therapy made him immediately feel much better. In fact, he said “It’s a 100 percent difference.”8

    7. Josh James, a pitcher for the Houston Astros found his performance was lacking in between the 2016 and 2017 seasons. He sought help from a sleep specialist and was diagnosed with sleep apnea. After starting treatment, he saw his symptoms (and performance on the field) improve dramatically.

    Why Do Some Athletes Get Sleep Apnea?

    In recent years, Sleep-disordered breathing like OSA has gained notoriety within the athletic community. The prevalence of OSA in the NFL is around 14 to 19 percent and has a two to five percent estimated prevalence rate in the general U.S. population9.

    NFL players have a higher susceptibility of possibly developing OSA due to risk factors9 like having a large waist circumference and high prevalence of obesity.  NFL linemen could be especially susceptible because they usually have a higher BMI.

    Athletes, while often in great physical condition, have “thick” necks10 due to excessive weightlifting and having to carry around extra weight required for pushing others around the football field. This is another risk factor of sleep apnea.  The extra fat or muscle tissue on the neck can cause the wall of the windpipe to become thicker and make it more difficult to keep the airway open when the body’s in a relaxed state.

    Other muscular athletes, like football players, who carry extra weight11 have a risk for sleep apnea-related health concerns like stroke, high blood pressure, and other life-threatening problems.

    Today, we live in a culture that’s celebrity-obsessed. Because of this, professional athletes that have sleep apnea can help raise awareness of the condition, making a difference toward public education. When the public sees athletes with sleep apnea that are tackling it, it makes a great impression.

    David Repasky has been using CPAP treatment since 2017 and has first-hand experience with what it’s like to live with Sleep Apnea. He brings the patient’s perspective to the blog and has received formal training in CPAP machines, masks, and equipment.


    1. American Sleep Apnea Association. Sleep Apnea Information for Clinicians Published on their official website. Accessed April 12, 2019.

    2. Harvard University Medical Center. Sleep and Health Published on their official website. Accessed April 12, 2019.

    3. Press Release. ZYPPAH® Signs Shaquille O’Neal as its Global Brand Ambassador Accessed April 12, 2019

    4. Thorbecke, Catherine, et al. NFL star Ryan Jensen says Sleep Apnea Diagnosis ‘Saved my Career’ ABC News. Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    5. Reggie White Foundation About Us. Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    6. Press Release. Arizona Cardinals’ Alumni Roy Green Joins Pro Player Health Alliance To Spread Awareness Of Sleep Apnea At An Event Hosted By Dr. Bradley Eli At Scripps Memorial Hospital Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    7. Zyppah, Inc. Warren Sapp – Sleep Apnea Prevention Project Video Segment 1 Published on YouTube. Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    8. Associated Press. With Sleep Apnea Diagnosis Percy Harvin Believes His Migrane Problems are in the Past. Published by Fox News. Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    9. Rogers, April J et al. “Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Players in the National Football League: A Scoping Review.” Journal of sleep disorders & therapy vol. 6,5 (2017): 278. doi:10.4172/2167-0277.1000278 Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    10. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. “Problem Sleepiness in Your Patient” Published on their official website. Accessed on April 12, 2019.

    11. National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases. Health Risks of Being Overweight. Published on their official website. Accessed on April 12, 2019.