sleep disorder

  • Sleep Apnea. Bad for Your Brain.

    Original Article | BottomLine INC
    Chris Iliades, MD is a regular contributor to Bottom Line Health. He was an ear, nose, throat, head, and neck surgeon before becoming a full-time medical writer.

    According to the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Neurology, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is bad for brain health. Studies show that OSA causes cognitive impairment, which is the loss of your brain’s ability to remember, think, concentrate, learn, and make decisions.

    Sleep Apnea

    What happens during OSA?

    In people with OSA, the oral or nasal airway collapses during sleep and breathing stops for a short period. This is called apnea. Blood oxygen levels decrease and carbon dioxide levels increase. Rising carbon dioxide triggers your brain to wake you up enough to breathe. Almost everyone with OSA snores, usually loudly, so a sleeping partner may hear loud snoring followed by quiet, and then sudden gasping for air. In mild-to-moderate OSA, there may be between five and 30 episodes per hour. In severe OSA, these instances can occur more than 30 times per hour.

    A 2021 study reported at the American Academy of Neurology annual meeting showed that people with OSA were 60 percent more likely to score in a lower range on cognitive testing than people without it. The worse the OSA, the worse the cognitive decline. The average age of study participants was about 70.

    Further, OSA increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, heart arrhythmia, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.

    Are you at risk?

    The American Heart Association estimates that OSA may affect close to 40 percent of U.S. adults and up to 80 percent of people with cardiovascular disease. It is more common in men and in people who are overweight. You could be at higher risk if you have a family history of OSA. Other risk factors include smoking, drinking alcohol, taking sleeping pills, and having any type of narrowing of the nasal or oral airway, like a deviated nasal septum or large tonsils or adenoids.

    Reduce risk, improve health

    Lowering risk can be as simple as exercising. An important study presented at the 2021 meeting of the American Heart Association showed that exercise reduces the risk of both OSA and cognitive decline.

    In the study, 47 patients with varying degrees of cognitive loss were tested for a cognition score. Half of the patients were given a six-month-long supervised exercise program. After six months, the exercise group had fewer OSA episodes, a 32 percent improvement in their cognitive scores, and better glucose metabolism in the brain.

    In addition to exercise, lifestyle changes that reduce the risk or improve symptoms of OSA include not drinking, not smoking, and losing weight. Sleeping on your side and propping up your upper body during sleep may also reduce OSA. In some cases, surgery can be used to correct a deviated septum or remove tonsils and adenoids if they are contributing to OSA.


    Mark Twain said, “There ain’t no way to know why a man can’t hear himself snore,” but there is a way to find out if you have sleep apnea. If your sleeping partner describes periods of snoring and apnea, or you wake up groggy with a headache and feel sleepy all day, you should have a sleep study.

    During the sleep study, you spend a night in a sleep lab, where specialists called polysomnographers document sleep apnea and grade the severity. Sleep study kits you can use at home are now available, so you may not need to spend the night sleeping in a laboratory.


    For mild sleep apnea, lifestyle changes, sleeping position, and sometimes an oral appliance that keeps your tongue from blocking your oral airway may be all you need. For more severe OSA, the treatment of choice is CPAP. During CPAP treatment, you wear a mask while you sleep that provides humidified oxygen through your nose to force open your airway. It is very effective but takes some getting used to, and you may need to experiment with different types of masks, levels of air pressure, and humidification devices to find the most comfortable option.

    A new technology called hypoglossal nerve stimulation may eliminate the need for CPAP for some people who can’t tolerate it. With this treatment, a pacemaker implanted in the chest stimulates the hypoglossal nerve to open the back of the throat.

    OSA is that it is both common and dangerous. If you have the symptoms, tell your doctor and get OSA under control now. Your brain and your sleeping partner will thank you.

  • Sleep Disturbances Common in Patients Who Recovered from COVID

    Original Article | Jun 6, 2022 | Sleep Review Magazine

    Nearly all patients who recovered from COVID-19 report lingering fatigue, while half experience sleep disturbances, according to a recent analysis from Cleveland Clinic. Researchers found that race, obesity, and mood disorders are contributors. 

    Investigators analyzed data from 962 patients from the Cleveland Clinic ReCOVer Clinic between February 2021 and April 2022. The patients were recovered from COVID-19 and completed the sleep disturbance and fatigue questionnaires of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. More than two-thirds of patients (67.2%) reported at least moderate fatigue, while 21.8% reported severe fatigue. Eight percent of patients reported severe sleep disturbances, and 41.3% reported at least moderate sleep disturbances.  

    “Sleep difficulties are highly prevalent and debilitating symptoms reported in patients with post-acute sequealae of COVID-19,” says Cinthya Pena Orbea, MD, a sleep specialist at Cleveland Clinic, in a release. “Our study suggests that the prevalence of moderate to severe sleep disturbances is high and that Black race confers increased odds to suffer from moderate to severe sleep disturbances highlighting the importance to further understand race-specific determinants of sleep disturbances in order to develop race-specific interventions.” 

    Patients with moderate-to-severe compared with normal-to-mild sleep disturbances had higher body mass indices, were more likely to be Black, and had worse general anxiety disorder.  

    After adjusting for demographics, Black patients were three times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe sleep disturbances. 

    The research abstract was published recently in an online supplement of the journal Sleep and will be presented June 6 and 7 during SLEEP 2022.

    Photo 188719463 © Robert Knesc

  • How To Wind Down for Better Sleep—Especially if You’re an Introvert

    Original Post | Erica Sloan・December 15, 2021

    Picture the pinnacle of social exhaustion: Perhaps, you’ve just spent four hours at a work holiday party, meeting the humans behind a bunch of Zoom squares IRL for the first time. Or, maybe you had a day of reconnecting with family members you haven’t seen in two, time-blurred pandemic years. It would seem that hitting the hay would be the most obvious solution—but once you get into bed, your body seems to say, Not so fast. For introverts, in particular, the draining nature of being social can leave you, paradoxically, chasing sleep.

    In general, that counterproductive scenario springs from the difference between feeling fatigued and feeling tired, says psychologist and behavioral sleep-medicine specialist Shelby Harris, PsyD, DBSM, author of The Women’s Guide to Overcoming Insomnia. While the former reflects a total drain of energy (which tends to happen for an introvert after a social event), the latter is more about physical sleepiness, which is that drowsy feeling that allows you to drift off to dreamland.

    “For introverts, socializing tends to overstimulate the brain and body, leading some to feel irritable, indecisive, or on edge.” —behavioral sleep-medicine specialist Shelby Harris, PsyD

    “For introverts, socializing tends to overstimulate the brain and body, leading some to feel irritable, indecisive, or on edge, or even to get physical symptoms, like a headache or muscle aches,” says Dr. Harris. “While all of that can be extremely exhausting, it doesn’t necessarily lead to feeling sleepy.” By contrast, a social event can actually flood the brain with uppers like dopamine, adrenaline, and cortisol, which, for an introvert, tend to be perceived negatively, says Mike Dow, PsyD, psychotherapist at Field Trip Health, a psychedelic-assisted therapy practice. In fact, these neurotransmitters can keep you reeling long after an event wraps up (cue: the introvert hangover).RELATED STORIESHow To Make Waking Up in the Dark Suck Less, According to…Not an Early Bird or Night Owl? Science Suggests There May Be…

    Trying to get to sleep in that state can require a whole lot more than simply getting into bed; after all, the process of falling asleep is nothing like an on-off switch, biologically, says Dr. Harris. For an introvert, especially, easing your mind into sleep mode is best done with a calming pre-bed ritual. Below, the experts share tips for socially exhausted introverts who want nothing more than to get a good night’s sleep.

    It’s especially hard for introverts to sleep after a highly social experience, but these 5 tips can help

    1. Create a container for your thoughts.

    “Introverts are internal processors,” says psychologist Laurie Helgoe, PhD, author of Introvert Power: Why Your Inner Life Is Your Hidden Strength. “They often take inputs from conversations and process them later, which can mean mulling over what someone said, replaying or continuing a conversation, coming up with a better comeback, and the like.”

    Journaling can help put a pause to that spiral by providing a space for you to essentially unload all of your thoughts, and, if you’d like, feel free to return to them later—ideally at a time when you’re not trying desperately to get catch precious zzz’s.

    2. Talk back to negative self-talk.

    In re-assessing a social event (as introverts are wont to do), you may find that certain percolating thoughts devolve into negative or anxious ones. For example, it’s easy to start over-evaluating and hyper-personalizing, says Dr. Dow. “Maybe you start thinking, ‘Was Cindy looking at me weird? I must have done something wrong.’ And as the night goes on, the thoughts can turn more catastrophic in nature, leading to something like, ‘If I don’t get a good night’s sleep, I’m going to botch this presentation tomorrow, and if that happens, I could get fired,’ and so on,” he says.

    In that case, he suggests employing one of the classic strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy, which is to reconsider thoughts and feelings not as facts but merely as information, which you can choose to disregard. “Access the best parts of yourself to talk back to those inner voices,” he says.

    3. Write in a gratitude journal.

    Taking time to remember all the things for which you’re grateful—whether they include highlights from the social activity of the day, or something else entirely—can also help you forgo the kind of thought-spiraling that tends to ward off sleep.

    “Because introverts are natural problem-solvers, they can get stuck in focusing on what’s not working,” says Dr. Helgoe. “But a gratitude list can help you balance that problem orientation by reminding you of what is working.” And that, in and of itself, can be incredibly soothing.

    4. Practice some non-screen-based relaxation.

    While it’s tempting to scroll through Instagram or scan emails in bed to occupy a restless mind, that level of mental stimulation, combined with the melatonin-suppressing blue light, is a recipe for wakefulness. Instead, do anything non-screen-related that feels calming and relaxing, whether that’s reading, knitting, listening to music, or even coloring or doing a simple crossword or jigsaw puzzle, says Dr. Harris. (You can also practice mindfulness meditation, but because this can be challenging to really sink into with an overactive mind, Dr. Harris says it’ll be most beneficial for someone who already has a daytime meditation practice.

    If you’re really at a loss for where to start, try connecting with each of the five senses, says Dr. Dow: “Soothe your sense of touch with a bath, your sense of smell with a lavender candle, your sense of sight with dimmed lighting, your sense of hearing with calming music or a meditation track, and your sense of taste with a nighttime tea.”

    5. And if you’re tossing and turning, get out of bed.

    Trying to make sleep happen often keeps it from, well, happening. So, instead of remaining in bed and trying to will yourself asleep, get up, walk into another room, and return to whatever wind-down exercise you were doing beforehand in dim lighting, says Dr. Harris: “Simply changing what you’re doing and where you’re doing it can often help stop an overactive mind in its tracks.”

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  • Body Clock Off-Schedule? Sleepless Nights?Prebiotics May Help

    Original Article Posted by Sleep Review Staff | Sep 16, 2021 | Jet Lag Disorder

    Whether it’s from jetting across time zones, pulling all-nighters at school or working the overnight shift, chronically disrupting our circadian rhythm—or internal biological clocks—can take a measurable toll on everything from sleep, mood and metabolism to risk of certain diseases, mounting research shows.

    But a new University of Colorado Boulder study funded by the U.S. Navy suggests simple dietary compounds known as prebiotics, which serve as food for beneficial gut bacteria, could play an important role in helping us bounce back faster.

    “This work suggests that by promoting and stabilizing the good bacteria in the gut and the metabolites they release, we may be able to make our bodies more resilient to circadian disruption,” senior author Monika Fleshner, a professor of integrative physiology, said in a statement.

    Woman Suffering from A Sleepless Night

    The animal study, published in the journal Brain, Behavior and Immunity, is the latest to suggest that prebiotics—not to be confused with probiotics found in fermented foods like yogurt and sauerkraut—can influence not only the gut, but also the brain and behavior.

    Naturally abundant in many fibrous foods—including leeks, artichokes and onions—and in breast milk, these indigestible carbohydrates pass through the small intestine and linger in the gut, serving as nourishment for the trillions of bacteria residing there.

    The authors’ previous studies showed that rats raised on prebiotic-infused chow slept better and were more resilient to some of the physical effects of acute stress.

    For the new study, part of a multi-university project funded by the Office of Naval Research, the researchers sought to learn if prebiotics could also promote resilience to body-clock disruptions from things like jet lag, irregular work schedules or lack of natural daytime light—a reality many military personnel live with.

    “They are traveling all over the world and frequently changing time zones. For submariners, who can be underwater for months, circadian disruption can be a real challenge,” said lead author Robert Thompson, a postdoctoral researcher in the Fleshner lab. “The goal of this project is to find ways to mitigate those effects.”

    How a healthy gut may prevent jet lag

    The researchers raised rats either on regular food or chow enriched with two prebiotics: galactooligosaccharides and polydextrose.

    They then manipulated the rats’ light-dark cycle weekly for eight weeks—the equivalent of traveling to a time zone 12 hours ahead every week for two months.

    Rats that ate prebiotics more quickly realigned their sleep-wake cycles and core body temperature (which can also be thrown off when internal clocks are off) and resisted the alterations in gut flora that often come with stress.

    “This is one of the first studies to connect consuming prebiotics to specific bacterial changes that not only affect sleep but also the body’s response to circadian rhythm disruption,” said Thompson.

    The study also takes a critical step forward in answering the question: How can simply ingesting a starch impact how we sleep and feel?

    The researchers found that those on the prebiotic diet hosted an abundance of several health-promoting microbes, including Ruminiclostridium 5 (shown in other studies to reduce fragmented sleep) and Parabacteroides distasonis.

    They also had a substantially different “metabolome,” the collection of metabolic byproducts churned out by bacteria in the gut.

    Put simply: The animals that ingested the prebiotics hosted more good bacteria, which in turn produced metabolites that protected them from something akin to jet lag.

    Are supplements worthwhile?

    Clinical trials are now underway at CU Boulder to determine if prebiotics could have similar effects on humans.

    The research could lead to customized prebiotic mixtures designed for individuals whose careers or lifestyles expose them to frequent circadian disruption.

    In the meantime, could simply loading up on legumes and other foods naturally rich in the compounds help keep your body clock running on time? It’s not impossible but unlikely, they say—noting that the rats were fed what, in human terms, would be excessive amounts of prebiotics.

    Why not just ingest the beneficial bacteria directly, via probiotic-rich foods like yogurt?

    That could also help, but prebiotics may have an advantage over probiotics in that they support the friendly bacteria one already has, rather than introducing a new species that may or may not take hold.

    What about prebiotic dietary supplements?

    “If you are happy and healthy and in balance, you do not need to go ingest a bunch of stuff with a prebiotic in it,” said Fleshner. “But if you know you are going to come into a challenge, you could take a look at some of the prebiotics that are available. Just realize that they are not customized yet, so it might work for you but it won’t work for your neighbor.”

  • 7 Midnight Snacks That RDs Say Can Help Lull You Back To Sleep

    Original Post | Well + Good Food and Nutrition

    We’ve all had those nights where we inexplicably wake up in the middle of the night with a grumbling belly. Maybe it was that HIIT workout you braved for the first time, your marathon of meetings-slash-evening-errands that left you with little time to eat an adequate dinner, or maybe you were just dreaming about delicious pasta (the best type of reverie).

    While you could certainly go forth and eat gobs of Nutella straight from the jar—convenience and tastiness are both extremely key, after all—you don’t need to be an registered dietitian to conclude that the sugar content isn’t exactly a recipe for sound sleep the rest of the night. “High fat and high sugar foods like ice cream and cookies are a double whammy of not helping you sleep well, because fat takes a long time to digest,” says Dawn Blatner, RDN, author of The Superfood Swap. “Giving your gut foods that are difficult to digest distracts your body from sleep, and then sugar causes spikes and crashes of blood sugar and those will interrupt sleep, too.”

    Blatner also suggests avoiding alcohol since, even though your nightcap can make you feel sleepy, it will disrupt your sleep cycle later in the night and lead to lower quality sleep. Caffeinated teas or too much of anything liquid should also be consumed in moderation, she adds, as having to use the bathroom can keep you awake.

    So what should you eat if you’re in the mood for a mid-snooze nosh? Read on for these RD-approved suggestions for healthy midnight snacks that will help you get right back to your REM cycle.

    7 healthy midnight snacks that will help lull you back to sleep

    1. Tart Cherries

    Tart cherries are a natural source of melatonin, a hormone that regulates the body’s internal clock and sleep-wake cycle,” says Blatner. If you can’t find tart cherries at the supermarket, she suggests opting for tart cherry concentrate, which is the super-charged version of tart cherry juice with two tablespoons packing in the equivalent of a whopping 60-plus cherries. Instead of guzzling it (remember that sugar and excessive amounts of liquid can keep you awake), create yourself a little ‘natural’ jello shot before bed. “All you do is mix two tablespoons of tart cherry concentrate with a tablespoon of chia seeds and chill it in the fridge. Try topping it with greek yogurt to combat the tartness,” Blatner says.RELATED STORIES‘I’m a Registered Dietitian, and This Is the One Food I Always…Why Snacking on Hemp Seeds Can Help You Sleep More Soundly

    2. Pumpkin Seeds

    “Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of magnesium, and studies have found that magnesium improves insomnia and sleep efficiency,” says Blatner. Almonds, cashews, and peanuts are other good sources of magnesium that all make for ideal healthy midnight snacks.

    3. Cottage Cheese

    Cottage cheese contains the amino acid L-tryptophan. “Tryptophan plays a role in the production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that’s associated with healthy sleep,” says Blatner. “Research has found people who ate cottage cheese about 30 minutes to an hour before going to bed experienced better metabolic health, muscle quality, and overall health than people who didn’t.”

    We know it’s no cheesy mozzarella pizza or ricotta cheesecake, but you can optimize your enjoyment of cottage cheese with a sprinkle of cinnamon (which has its own sleep benefits). “You can also try topping it with tahini or sunflower seed butter, which both contain tryptophan as well,” says Blatner.

    4. Warm Milk

    New research suggests that the casein protein in cow’s milk interacts with trypsin, a digestive enzyme in the stomach, to produce a sleep-enhancing peptide complex called CTH, or casein tryptic hydrolysate,” says Blatner. “The added vitamin D in milk may also play a role in maintaining healthful sleep.”

    5. Kiwi

    Research suggests that the antioxidants and natural serotonin in kiwis can improve both sleep quality and quantity,” says Blatner. Kiwis are naturally sweet and delicious as-is, but you can jazz them up by lightly dipping them in dark chocolate. “Dark chocolate has magnesium, a helpful sleep mineral, but it also has a little caffeine, so go easy on it.”

    6. Banana with Peanut Butter

    “Foods that contain unsaturated fats, like peanut butter, can help improve serotonin levels and boost satiety to keep you feeling satisfied and full during sleep,” says Carissa Galloway, RDN, a nutrition consultant at Premier Protein. “Eating bananas with peanut butter can also be helpful before bed, as bananas contain magnesium which, as mentioned, help support good sleep.” The combination of bananas plus peanut butter makes for one of the most delicious healthy midnight snacks out there.

    7. Chamomile Tea

    “There are numerous studies that support the benefits of chamomile tea in promoting a healthy nighttime routine,” says Galloway. Chamomile tea contains flavonoids, which are compounds found in certain foods, including one called apigenin. “Apigenin connects with receptors in our brains to help reduce insomnia and promote a state of steady sleep.”

    So when you find yourself wide awake in the wee hours, sip a cup of chamomile tea with a splash of steamed almond milk, or have a batch of Blatner’s chamomile cookies on hand.

    All that said, bear in mind that more important than what you eat before bed, is the amount. “Having a large amount of any food will take too much effort for your body to digest instead of resting,” says Blatner. A light nosh of one of the foods recommended here, on the other hand, will send you right into the sweetest of dreams.

  • Menopause and insomnia: What is the link?

    Original Post | Medical News Today

    After menopause, a person’s ovaries produce much lower amounts of certain hormones, including estrogen and progesterone. For some, this transition comes with sleep disturbances.

    Insomnia refers to the difficulty falling or staying asleep. It is a commonTrusted Source experience in menopause and may occur as a result of hormonal changes.

    It may also be a secondary result of the other symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes.

    Read on for more information on menopause and insomnia, including why it happens, how long it may last, and what medical treatments and complementary therapies are available.

    Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.

    Can menopause cause insomnia?

    The exterior of a large apartment building at night. Bright light illuminates one of the windows.
    Colin Anderson/Stocksy

    Yes – insomnia is a frequent occurrence during perimenopause and menopause. Some people only experience mild or occasional sleep disturbances, but for others, the insomnia can be severe.

    According to a 2018 article, 26%Trusted Source of people going through perimenopause and menopause experience insomnia that affects their daily activities.

    In females, the rate of insomnia increases with age. According to the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)Trusted Source, the prevalence of sleep disorders is as follows:

    • 16–42% in premenopause
    • 39–47% in perimenopause
    • 35–60% in postmenopause

    Why does menopause cause insomnia?

    Research on the exact cause of insomnia during menopause does not point to one clear cause. Several things may contribute to it, including:

    Hormonal changes

    Some evidence suggests that low hormone levels can increase the likelihood of insomnia during menopause.

    According to the SWANTrusted Source, previous longitudinal studies have found a correlation between lower levels of estradiol and poorer sleep. This is especially true if the decline in hormones happens quickly, as it does after a person undergoes surgery to remove the ovaries.

    Hot flashes

    Sometimes, insomnia happens during menopause because of hot flashes or night sweats. These symptoms can disrupt sleep, causing frequent waking.

    Hot flashes, which are one of the so-called vasomotor symptoms, are common in menopause, affecting 75–85%Trusted Source of people going through menopause.

    Hot flashes cause a sudden sense of heat around the face and neck and often occur with sweating and a fast heartbeat.

    Reduction in melatonin

    Melatonin is a hormone that plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, helping keep people asleep. It is especially important at the start of sleep.

    However, melatonin levels appear to decrease with age, which may cause sleep disturbances.

    It is not clear whether there is a link between menopause and a decline in melatonin. Some evidenceTrusted Source suggests that there is and that individuals during postmenopause have less melatonin than those during premenopause.

    Mental health

    For many people, menopause signals a major change. It is also a sign that a person is getting older. This, along with the symptoms of menopause, can have an impact on an individual’s mental health.

    Many mental health conditions, including anxiety and depression, affect sleep. However, insomnia can also make depression more likelyTrusted Source. The relationship between sleep and mood is bidirectional, and changing hormone levels can also play a role.

    How long will insomnia last?

    How long insomnia lasts during and after menopause depends on many factors. Every person who goes through menopause has a different experience. Some will find that the symptoms last longer than they do for others.

    A person’s hormone levels can start to change 7–10 yearsTrusted Source before a person’s last period. After this point, people can continue to have symptoms such as hot flashes for several years.

    Estradiol levels continue to decline for the first 1–6 years in early postmenopause, which may result in continued symptoms.

    It is of note, however, that there are treatments and therapies available that can reduce sleep difficulties. It is also important to address any other factors that may be contributing to poor sleep quality.powered by Rubicon Project

    Medical treatments for insomnia during menopause

    The main treatment for menopause-related insomnia is hormone therapy. This works by replacing the lost hormones, which can improve many menopause symptoms. People may find that they sleep better and experience fewer hot flashes while using this treatment.

    Hormone therapy is available in topical gels, creams, and patches. People can also take it internally via tablets or an implant.

    Another potential treatment is a low-dose selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

    Doctors typically prescribe SSRIs for mental health conditions, but these medications can also reduce the frequency of hot flashes, which may help with sleep. However, it is of note that insomnia can also occur as a side effect of SSRIs.

    For those who are experiencing mood changes, anxiety, or depression, talk therapy may help them understand and cope with these feelings. Lessening the impact of mental health conditions may also benefit sleep.

    Doctors rarely prescribe sleeping pills to treat insomnia, as these can have serious side effects. Many are also addictive and are not suitable for managing a long-term sleep problem.

    Natural and complementary therapies

    According to a 2019 review, no study has found that herbal or dietary supplements consistently help with menopause symptoms. However, there are many other ways people can try to make sleep easier during menopause.

    Below are some evidence-based approaches:

    Avoiding caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol

    Smoking, consuming caffeine, and drinking alcohol can all make it more difficult to sleep. While it may seem that alcohol makes people drowsy, even a small amount reduces overall sleep quality.

    A person can try to reduce or avoid any of these, especially in the afternoon and evening.


    Aromatherapy may be helpful in inducing relaxation and reducing hot flashes.

    In a clinical trial involving 100 women, researchers found that after 12 weeks of lavender essential oil inhalation, the participants had 50% fewer hot flashes.

    Other studies have also found that aromatherapy together with massage was more effective than massage or aromatherapy by themselves.


    A 2019 review notes that there is evidence that hypnosis may reduce the frequency and severity of hot flashes by up to 50%.

    Moreover, for people whose insomnia results from hot flashes, hypnosis may be a helpful complementary treatment.


    Some studies have found that yoga has a beneficial impact on the psychological symptoms of menopause. If a person is having difficulty sleeping due to stress or anxiety, yoga practice may help reduce these symptoms.

    However, the results of other studies on yoga have been mixed. This is partly because there are many styles of yoga and numerous ways of practicing, which may lead to inconsistent results.